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Leaching Characteristics of Selected Supergene Copper Ores

Leaching Characteristics of Atacamite Mineralization The atacamite (Cu2Cl(OH)3) ore tested was from the ASARCO Santa Cruz deposit, Pinal county, Arizona. This property is an undeveloped porphyry copper deposit buried beneath approximately 1000 feet of alluvium and indurated gravel. There are three principal rock units: older Precambrian quartz monzonite (equivalent to Oracle granite), younger ...

Copper extraction - Wikipedia

OverviewHydrometallurgical extractionHistoryConcentrationFroth flotationSulfide smeltingConcentrate and copper marketingSee also

Secondary sulfides – those formed by supergene secondary enrichment – are resistant (refractory) to sulfuric leaching. These ores are a mixture of copper carbonate, sulfate, phosphate, and oxide minerals and secondary sulfide minerals, dominantly chalcocite but other minerals such as digenite can be important in some deposits. Supergene ores rich in sulfides may be concentrated using froth flotation. A typical concentrate of chalc

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Leaching Supergene Copper Ore - Atacamite & Chrysocolla

The US Bureau of Mines is conducting core leaching experiments with sulfuric acid on oxide copper ores from the Cyprus Casa Grande and Asarco-Freeport Santa Cruz deposit in Arizona to further the understanding of the leaching process in supergene copper ores as it relates to in situ mining.

Supergene (geology) - Wikipedia

OverviewZonesMineral alterationsSee also

In ore deposit geology, supergene processes or enrichment are those that occur relatively near the surface as opposed to deep hypogene processes. Supergene processes include the predominance of meteoric water circulation with concomitant oxidation and chemical weathering. The descending meteoric waters oxidize the primary (hypogene) sulfideore minerals and redistribute the metallic ore elements. Supergene enrichment occurs at the base of the oxidized portion of an ore deposit. Metals that have been leached

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Heap Leaching Oxide and Sulfide Copper Ores

Leaching studies were conducted on coarse oxide and sulfide copper ores in small laboratory columns and in large concrete columns in the field. These studies were designed to determine the influence of various chemical and physical parameters on heap leaching and to establish a correlation between laboratory and field testing.

Acid Leaching - Copper Ore Treatment Method

PREPARATION OF THE COPPER ORE. This study is limited in general to percolation leaching as it is the most widely used method to give proper contact of solvent with the ore to effect extraction of the copper. One of the important factors in percolation leaching is the size reduction necessary for copper recovery within reasonable time limits.

Producing Copper Nature's Way: Bioleaching

The GEOCOAT™ Process - A heap leaching process that is capable of bioleaching copper concentrates. It does this by coating the concentrate slurry onto a support rock, or substrate material, and stacking this coated material in a bioxidation heap. The support rock itself may be a low-grade copper ore.

Hypogene - Wikipedia

In ore deposit geology, hypogene processes occur deep below the earth's surface, and tend to form deposits of primary minerals, as opposed to supergene processes that occur at or near the surface, and tend to form secondary minerals.. At great depth the pressure is high, and water can remain liquid at temperatures well above 100 °C. Hot aqueous solutions originating from magmas, deep ...

Copper Ore Types: Sulfides vs. Oxides | An Investor's ...

As with oxide ores, SX-EW tech is used to recover copper from a pregnant leach solution. Secondary sulfides, which are formed by supergene secondary enrichment, are resistant to sulfuric leaching ...

Bioleaching - Wikipedia

Bioleaching is the extraction of metals from their ores through the use of living organisms.This is much cleaner than the traditional heap leaching using cyanide. Bioleaching is one of several applications within biohydrometallurgy and several methods are used to recover copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, antimony, nickel, molybdenum, gold, silver, and cobalt

Supergene Oxidation of Copper Deposits: Zoning and ...

copper transportation from a source region, but the protore does not need to have high copper content if leaching and precipitation are efficient. Conversely, the second type requires substantial protolith copper content if the copper oxide zone developed is to be of potential ore grade, and requires also that removal of copper be minimal.

copper processing | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica

Copper processing, the extraction of copper from its ores and the preparation of copper metal or chemical compounds for use in various products. In its pure form or as an alloy, copper (Cu) is one of the most important metals in society. The pure metal has a face-centred cubic crystal structure, and ...

(PDF) Economic Geology - Supergene ore deposits

Economic Geology - Supergene ore deposits +35. ... The crucial factor for effect ive leaching is. w a t e r, ... Schematic profile of a deeply weathered copper sulphide ore deposit,

Copper Ore Types: Sulfides versus Oxides | Nasdaq

Apr 23, 2011 · Secondary sulfides formed by supergene secondary enrichment are resistant to sulfuric leaching. When rich enough, native copper ore bodies may be treated to recover the contained copper

Leaching of Copper Sulphides - SAIMM

Copper Cobalt Africa, incorporating the 8th Southern African Base Metals Conference Livingstone, Zambia, 6–8 July 2015 Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 183 Leaching of Copper Sulphides Marc Nicolle,1 Marko Lampi,2 Kari Valkama, 2 and Janne Karonen 1 Outotec (RSA) (Pty) Ltd, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Origins of Chalcocite Defined by Copper Isotope Values

The mean values and 1-sigma variations for supergene enrichment chalcocite are , for sedimentary copper chalcocite are (), and for hypogene chalcocite is ().Although the three populations show considerable overlap in the weakly fractionated range, 64% of the sedimentary copper measurements are less than , and 65% of the chalcocite from supergene enrichment has values greater than +1.

12. Supergene Ore and Gangue Characteristics

In the traditional view, supergene ore and gangue minerals are the products of reactions between hypogene sulfide minerals and descending, acidic meteoric waters; these processes take place at or near the ground surface in subaerial environments (Guilbert and Park, 1986). In VMS deposits, copper and other metals are mobilized from primary massive

Heap Leaching - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

2.1 Leaching. Most copper leaching is done by piling broken ore (∼0.5% Cu) into flat-surface, 3–10m high, 10 4 –10 5 m 2 heaps of ore and then sprinkling dilute sulfuric acid lixiviant on to the heap surface. The lixiviant trickles down through the heap and leaches copper from its minerals to produce a pregnant leach solution containing 1–5kg Cum −3.

Bioleaching: Introduction, Methods, Application, Copper ...

Bioleaching: Introduction, Methods, Application, Copper, Microorganisms, and Processes! Introduction to Bioleaching: Leaching process was first observed in pumps and pipelines installed in mine pits containing acid water. This process was later on employed for recovering metals from ores containing low quantity of the metal. Presently certain metals from sulfide ores and other ores are ...

Supergene Enrichment - How Natural Processes have ...

Supergene Enrichment - How Natural Processes have Transformed Low-Grade Copper Mineralization into Economic Ores by David F. Briggs In “What is a Porphyry Copper Deposit?”, I discussed the general relationships of the primary alteration and mineralization that are found within porphyry copper systems. Also known as

Supergene Enrichment - How Natural Processes have ...

Supergene Enrichment - How Natural Processes have Transformed Low-Grade Copper Mineralization into Economic Ores by David F. Briggs In “What is a Porphyry Copper Deposit?”, I discussed the general relationships of the primary alteration and mineralization that are found within porphyry copper systems. Also known as

Bioleaching of Supergene Porphyry Copper Ores from Sungai ...

Environmentally friendly mining technologies have to be developed extensively to avoid the impact of mining activities with respect to environmental concern. One example of such technology is bioleaching which has been developed worldwide and is regarded as an appropriate technology for the extraction of metals from polymetallic ores such as supergene porphyry copper ores, mainly consisting of ...

(PDF) Treatment of a Copper-Rich Gold Ore by Ammonia ...

treatment of a copper- rich gold ore by ammonia assisted cyanide leaching Figure 7. Effect of ammonia pretreatm ent (1 M NH 3 ) and the addition of ammonia (0.5-1 M NH 3 ) on the

Development metallurgy guidelines for copper heap leach ...

This paper outlines a comprehensive, cost-effective testing program for the acid-ferric sulfate heap leaching of oxide, supergene and primary copper ores. It is based on extensive experience in copper heap leaching and uses the many technological advances in the field developed over the past several decades. The approach described requires firstly a detailed resource evaluation, then a ...

Topic 9: Supergene Enrichment - ResearchGate

Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation Supergene Enrichment 2 Outline of Topic 9: We will explore all of the above in Topic 9. Definition Weathering Processes and Supergene ore Deposits Conditions ...

Copper Smelting - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Production of copper by leaching/solvent extraction/electrowinning increased markedly in the last two decades of the twentieth century. It is only limited by the availability of leachable “oxide” and supergene sulfide ores. So far, industrial leaching of hypogene copper (e.g., CuFeS 2) ores has not yet proved to be feasible. It is, however ...

Copper Mining and Processing: Processing of Copper Ores ...

Copper processing is a complicated process that begins with mining of the ore (less than 1% copper) and ends with sheets of 99.99% pure copper called cathodes, which will ultimately be made into products for everyday use.The most common types of ore, copper oxide and copper sulfide, undergo two different processes, hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, respectively, due to the different ...

Heap leaching - Wikipedia

Heap leaching is an industrial mining process used to extract precious metals, copper, uranium, and other compounds from ore using a series of chemical reactions that absorb specific minerals and re-separate them after their division from other earth materials. Similar to in situ mining, heap leach mining differs in that it places ore on a liner, then adds the chemicals via drip systems to the ...

(PDF) Leaching of Copper Sulphides - ResearchGate

Hydrometallurgical leaching of copper sulphides is a n option to conside r, regardless of the feed material. Several developing countries have adopted policies that target downstream value addition to

Gold & Copper Bioleaching - Mineral Processing & Metallurgy

Bacterial Leaching of Copper Ores Several types of bacteria capable of living in an acid environment have been isolated from copper mine waters. The foremost of these are of the genus Thiobacillus (T.). Thiobacillus bacteria are acidophilic aerobic chemolithotrophs which grow most rapidly at a pH in the range of 2-3. T. ferrooxidans derive their energy by oxidizing ferrous iron, elemental ...

The Alteration Mechanism of Copper-bearing Biotite and ...

Oct 21, 2019 · The copper deposits in the world are widely distributed across five continents including more than 150 countries 1.According to the proportion of oxide minerals and sulfide minerals in copper ores ...

Composition, formation, and leaching behaviour of ...

Leaching, solvent extraction and Electrowining identified as methods exploiting copper from oxide ores. Extracting by solvent is remarked as one of that most common method of extracting copper ...

What is a leach cap in Copper ore deposit mineralisation ...

A leach cap is essentially a section of rock which used to carry mineralized ore, but has since been depleted due to weathering. The supergene enrichment blanket typically sits below water level, and has become enriched in copper due to percolation of groundwater through previously mineralized ore.

Composition, formation, and leaching behaviour of ...

From the supergene ore of the polymetallic Sanyati deposit in north-western Zimbabwe copper is won in a heap leaching - solvent extraction - electrowinning (HL-SX-EW) process. However, the copper recovery is below expectations. Therefore, the composition, formation, and leaching behaviour of the supergene ore was studied using mineralogical